THE NEW THEORY OF RESPIRATORY DYNAMICS
Index of this selection
THE NEW THEORY OF RESPIRATORY DYNAMICS
PART ONE: RESPIRATORY DYNAMICS
- I. Intra-pleural sub-atmospheric pressure
- Il. The respiratory Pulse
PART TWO: ORGANO-PHYSIC
DYNAMIC INTEGRATION FOR THE PHENOMENA OF
PART THREE: EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATIONS
- Curare physostigmine
whose Life and Health depend
on both the initial integration of organisms with Universal Dynamics through respiration, and on their constant adaptation to the prevailing environmental conditions
THE NEW THEORY OF RESPIRATORY DYNAMICS" begins to be developed in 1978, when, as a result of my previous studies on abdominal dynamics, I could state that the pressure waves detected at all points in the peritoneal cavity and lumen of viscera show respiratory rhythm and reflect the effect of total or partial tracheal occlusion.
The transcendental hypothesis was then stated, according to which the detected waves of pressure are assumed to be the transmitted effect of primary autonomous activity of the lungs and upper airways, which accomplish the modulation of the organic fluid circulation, as a parallel function to ventilation.
An experiment was programmed to prove this hypothesis, for which a detector of pressure-changes was placed in the pleural cavity, using a technique similar to that used in the abdomen. The very first graph, with the expected results, was recorded in July, 1978 and named "RESPIRATORY PULSE
The primary analysis of the graphs permitted the identification of two simultaneous genres of cyclic activity:
a. A periodical activity, with respiratory rhythm, for renovation of air from the environment: Ventilatory cycle.
b. A periodical activity with cardiac rhythm, for gas exchange with The blood: "Lobular alveolo-capillary cycle".
These fundamental ideas, broadly conceived, forms the content of my previous book "FISIODINAMICA DEL HOMBRE EN EL MUNDO" (Physio-dynamics of Man in the World) -6
Bases were established for a radical re-interpretation of the respiratory function, the Respiratory Pulse being the keystone of this proposal.
The comparative study of the Respiratory Pulse with other simultaneous parameters related to these dynamics, permitted the author to consolidate his previous observations and better define the necessary interactions among the target organs, in order to carry out the respiratory function. These parameters are:
The INTRA-PLEURAL PRESSURE identified as changes in the volume-pressure of the pleural content, which behaves as gases do. These pressure-changes reflect pleural capacity changes, mainly due to variations in the pleural diameters.
The TIDAL VOLUME intake, which defines the starting and ending points of the penetration of air into the lungs, and allows us to define the pulmonary dynamics prior to this intake of air, as a cause for the intra-pulmonary air forced flow toward the lobuli, which is followed by the aspiring force that determine the atmospheric air inhalation when the bronchi relax, while the pulmonary structure remains stretched by the diaphragm under reflex contraction.
These observations permitted the author to interpret the rhythmic contraction-relaxation of the bronchial muscles determining constriction-expansion of the airways during each respiratory cycle and, to define the pulmonary activity to which the phrenic diaphragm responds by contraction, followed, after relaxation, by simultaneous reflex costal expansion and elastic pulmonary retraction.
The comparative analysis of the Respiratory Pulse and the abdominal Aortic Pulse shows the close relationship between the lobular alveolo-capillary cycles and the cardiac cycles, which guarantees the simultaneous arrival of an air volume-mass on one side and the relative cardiac stroke volume on the other, to accomplish gas exchange in the alveolo-capillary units.
The comparative analysis of the Respiratory Pulse and the Pneumogram permit us to establish the relationship between pulmonary kinematics and costal wall expansion-retraction, as well as to define the relation of both these to diaphragm contraction-relaxation.
The experimental effects of electrical stimulation of the Vagus and Phrenic nerves, of their isolated and combined transversal sections, and of stimulation of their separated ends, contribute to a better definition of the role of each target organ during one respiratory cycle.
The paralysing effect of d-tubocurarine leads to functional dissociation of the main autonomic and somatic contributors to this vital dynamic cycle. The must striking observation is the greater endurance of the dynamic effects of pulmonary origin, i.e., the Respiratory Pulse (although the so-called "respiratory muscles" remain paralysed), even after definitive cardiac arrest. The dynamics of the lobular cycle are the last to disappear, and is proof of the lungs own primary activity, which is responsible for the cyclic impulses detected in each respiratory pulse, while the diaphragm aids intra-pulmonary air expansion, followed by steady elastic retraction of the pulmonary structure as air is used.
The characteristics of inspiratory -and lobular cyclic impulses during the paralysing effects of curare, pose the question of curare action on vagal effectors, permitting the predominance of the sympathetic lobular dynamics. These well-separated autonomic fields of action are further evidenced by observations of the effects produced by adrenaline injection.
The predominance of pulmonary dynamics over those of the thorax walls, is manifested in many experiments, among which is the observation that the pneumogram reproduces the shape of the Respiratory Pulse wave once the somatic muscles are paralysed (among them the intercostals and the diaphragm); i.e., now the costal wall passively follows the lungs in their autonomous retraction-expansion.
The paralysis of the diaphragm, intercostals, and in general, of all the somatic structures, symbolises the rupture of the integrated vegetative somatic dynamics, over-loading the vegetative structure with a great resistance in its function to accomplish ventilation; this leads to exhaustion of the potential strength of the vegetative structure. Finally, cardiac paralysis ends the transport of oxygen to the tissues, making lobular dynamics ineffective. The lobular tissues also suffer lack of oxygen; therefore, life is no longer maintained.
The remaining respiratory dynamic effects, shown in the Respiratory Pulse graph during cardiac arrest, furnish proof of the independent activity of the heart and lungs. It is worth keeping in mind that the electrical phenomena known as electrocardiogram (E. C. G.), as detected, should correspond to the simultaneous electrical activity of both the heart and lungs as a whole.
Adrenaline injection has a similar effect on the structure of the functional lobular-alveolo-capillary units, as occurs in the right ventricle and in pulmonary circulation, which is logical if we think about the need to balance cardiac rate and blood pressure to accomplish gas interchange.
These general observations lead to a better understanding of the improvement in respiration experienced by individuals suffering from asthma crisis if adrenaline is supplied.
Histamine injection produces striking dynamic effects in the Respiratory Pulse, first exhibited as strong impulses, and subsequently as long lasting periods of spasmodic broncho-constriction. These effects and those produced by adrenaline injection, complement each other, leading to a better understanding of bronchial asthma, and in general, of any cardiopulmonary imbalance of neuro-Vegetative origin.
Histamine and adrenaline seem to be activators of the autonomic pulmonary effectors; Histamine for those concerned with ventilation, under vagal action, and adrenaline for those concerned with cardio-lobular dynamic balance, under sympathetic co-ordination.
Adrenaline solves asthma crisis, restoring similar dynamic conditions to that operand prior to the induced crisis. (It rests to be seen what happens to the histamine left over, if any). Adrenaline, as used in the experiments here describes, shows no signs of any effect that could be interpreted as bronchodilatation; these shows that adrenaline only restores the equilibrium produced by the autonomic effectors since the Respiratory Pulse appears to normalise. More research is in progress in this field.
The New Theory of Respiratory Dynamics also permits a better understanding of the "Organic design" as a complex mechanism, which takes in energetic elements from the environment and delivers them to the tissues after- processing.
Respiration, as a function designed for the organic exchange of gases with the atmosphere, is so intimately integrated with the Universal Dynamics and local atmospheric conditions, in a close space-time relationship, that it in fact defines the habitat of different species and limits their natural migrations. The principal physic-natural factors involved in these relationships are the physic-chemical conditions of the air, in relation to the dynamic potential of the respiratory apparatus to balance those factors, vital to organic needs at the alveolar level.
This new theory defines a sequence of actions and reactions whose rational interpretation, related to the organic design, the structure of the respiratory apparatus, the behaviour of fluids and that of the deformable elastic bodies, as well as to Newton's interpretation of the Universal Dynamics, lead the author to define the concept of "air-mass pressure" as the Physic-Natural Parameter, according to which the structure of the respiratory apparatus is designed to accomplish its potential function. This parameter corresponds to the factors present in the environment; i.e., mass of gases per unit volume (mainly relative to Universal gravity) and, local temperature and humidity. The values of these factors need to be adapted to those required at the lobular level, in order to balance the pressure in the alveolo-capillary units, with the specific objective of gas and heat exchange in homeostatic conditions. This is the role of respiratory dynamics.
The new theory opens new perspectives for mankind, since it contributes to the knowledge of the phenomena of vegetative life as well as of the integration of living organisms to their atmosphere, as a closed vital-unit ultimately governed by the Universal Dynamics.
The New Theory establishes the real potentialities or limits of action and adaptation of living beings to different geographical levels. All this obliges us to re-interpret cardio-pulmonary pathologies of dynamic origin and hence improve treatment, and constitutes a major contribution to the prevention of organic dynamic accidents at work, in sports, and those due to atmospheric pollution. Among others, this New Theory offers a potential contribution in areas as diverse as medical and surgical practice, and the conquest of outer space.
As the Author lacks his own laboratory facilities, the experiments carried out have been possible due to the generous collaboration by professors in the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Medicine of the University "Central de Venezuela" (UCV); The Departments of Physiology of both the Faculty of Medicine of the "Universidad del Zulia" and the Faculty of Veterinary of the UCV, to whom I am very grateful. The graphs shown in figs. 1 to 7, 13 and 19 correspond to an experimental demonstration performed in 1980 in London University.
This English version was written by the Author with the intention that the original concepts remain unchanged, although he apologises for the stile, which is not as elegant as he would have liked.
The New Theory of Respiratory dynamics, as a contribution to our knowledge for the phenomena of life, is the patrimony of Mankind to which I dedicate my work. This is only a beginning. Much remains to be done, and I might add, in the spirit of Archimedes. Furnish me with the best experimental conditions, and in return, I will provide you with more profound and precise conclusions, for the benefit of man.
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