Any drug, biological or pharmacological product, as well as any technology applied to living beings, are processed by the organism and their positive or negative effects are relative to the concordance or not of the scientific interpretation of the vital functions with the expected organic response.

 Any medical act based on false scientific interpretation of vital functions is a potential cause of accidents, complications, damage and even death (Yatrogenia).

 Scientific and Academic Institutions. Governmental or non-Governmental Organisations responsible for defence of Life and Health, in accordance with the Positive Right that guarantee them, are responsible for the Doctrines and implementation of techniques and proceedings to be applied by Physicians and Doctors in their medical practice.


1. Unexpected damage caused to patients by medical action, under the strict application of established teaching and practices is responsibility of the Institutions and not that of the practitioner. Physicians or Doctors acting under these conditions are the people licensed for that, who believe in the goodness of their learning.

2. Doctors are responsible for their own medical behaviour. Therefore, if ignorance or the wrong use of the established norms has been the cause of damage, they become responsible for those results, by bad practice or negligence.

3. Pretension to decidedly ignore new contributions to scientific knowledge, only because they contradict traditional beliefs, without promoting their discussion and reasoned contrast, no matter haw deep their roots are, and because this causes damage to Life and Health of the Patient, generates juridical responsibility.

4. National, Regional and International Institutions or Organisations responsible for Teaching. Diffusion and application of techniques and proceedings in preventative and/or curative medical practice have Ethical and Legal obligations for permanent elucidation and promotion of Scientific Truth. This should be achieved by means of reasoned discussions of those beliefs supported by them, in contrast to the new contributions to knowledge, and to orient them for the necessary rectification and soonest implementation and application


Américo González-Bogen.

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