New Paradigms


              These new paradigms are conclusions derived from the physico-mathematical analysis and interpretation of the Respiratory Pulse and other simultaneous parameters, converging to organic dynamics for Life in the Atmosphere of the Earth.


 Figure 1. First graph in history of the cyclic pressure variations detected on the pleural surface of the Lung: Respiratory Pulse. This is unequivocal proof of the Lung being a mechanically active organ, under autonomic control.



The Respiratory Pulse


The Respiratory Pulse is the Resultant, at the pleural level, of the autonomic cyclic dynamics of the Lung in its thoracic ensemble, to which it integrates from the very moment of birth. These dynamics achieve circulation of the atmospheric air up to the alveolar units, in balance of time and force with the circulating arterial and capillary blood, leading to gas exchange.

The pulmonary dynamics are also natural processes for adaptation of the Living Beings and their balanced integration with the Atmosphere, within the geographical limits of the species, relative to the mass of air per volume unit.



 The Lung

 The Lung is an organ with a complex autonomic mechanical activity, performed by two kinds of integrated dynamic cycles, performed by specific structures.

One of these kinds of cycles, is carried out by the lobar bronchi under command of the Vagus nerve, for  renovation of volume masses of air, simultaneously achieving integration of the individuals with the Atmosphere, at the geographical level of the species genetically programmed adaptation, while also performing pulmo-cardio-circulatory integration and balance, for gas exchange at the alveolar-capillary units, this latter by means of the other kind of dynamic cycles, realised by the lobular bronchioles under Sympathetic command


The Primary role of the Lung is integration and balance of Organic Dynamics and Universal Dynamics, by means of the Atmosphere, at the very moment of birth and its cyclic reaffirmation throughout Life.


Therefore, being born means the self balanced dynamic integration of the Foetus with the Atmosphere.

The mass per volume unit of the air is the physic-mathematical natural factor enabling that integration.




The Living Being in the Atmosphere of the Earth


 Living Beings, humans as a prototype, defined from the perspective of Physics, are structural, functionally integrated models of  Mechanics of Fluids, both liquids and gases, balanced in themselves as with the Atmosphere at the genetic adaptation level of the species and individuals, to enable renovation and distribution of similar masses of air among the alveoli, to accomplish gas exchange with the blood and homogeneous distribution of oxygenated blood among the tissues.


This integrated dynamic balance of the whole Organic System of Fluids is the role of the Respiratory Apparatus, accomplished under active command of the Lung and the Central Nervous System’s rhythm and force control.


Air mass per volume unit is the physic mathematical factor determining the distribution of species and individuals at different levels of the Atmosphere, regulated by the Lung, in accordance with the equation F = m . a,  and the balance programmed in their genes.




Pulmonary lobar kinetic and kinematics


Pulmonary lobar kinetics and kinematics, under Vagus command, accomplish integration and cyclic adaptation of each individual with the Atmosphere in their Environment, by means of the inspired volume-mass of air


Insufficient pulmonary expansion, due to low volume-mass of inspired air causes imbalance in organic fluid circulation, as a factor leading to visceral oedema, as happens in the evolution of Acute High Altitude Sickness



Pulmonary lobular kinetic and kinematics


 Pulmonary lobular kinetics and kinematics, under Sympathetic command accomplishes

Alveolar-capillary rhythm and pressure balance to enable air distribution among the alveoli, for gas exchange with the blood.

Capillary blood hypertension is a cause of pulmonary oedema.

Alveolar air hypertension is a cause of gaseous emboli

Chronic, long lasting over many years, increased alveolar kinetics and kinematics is a cause of the mechanical destruction of their thinnest structures characterising Pure Pulmonary Emphysema




Respiratory Functional Pathologies


Respiratory functional pathologies must be re-interpreted from the perspective of the Respiratory Pulse and derived new paradigms



Pure Pulmonary Emphysema


Pure pulmonary emphysema is caused by hyper-kinetics of the pulmonary lobular structure due to Sympathetic-Adrenergic hyperactivity. Nicotine is a potent Adrenergic drug, therefore, the smoking habit and Nicotine contaminated environment is the cause of the widespread prevalence of Emphysema.



Acute High Altitude Sickness


Each living species is genetically designed for integration with the Atmosphere, from the very moment of birth, followed by cyclic adaptation to different levels of altitude, within the limits of each specie, relative to the mass of air per volume unit.


The Respiratory Pulse is the Resultant, on the pulmonary surface, in the pleural space, of the cyclic autonomic dynamics of the Lung in its thoracic ensemble, to which it automatically integrates, via reflex, from the very moment of birth, by means of the viscero-somatic Pulmo-Diaphragmatic or Vago-Phrenic reflex. This autonomic dynamics is the process for the newborn integration and adaptation with the Atmosphere of its environment. 

Human specie’s adaptation level is comprised between sea level and about 3000 and 3500 meters approximately; farther on, pulmonary functional insufficiency shall manifest as the known Acute High Altitude Sickness, for which I propose the name “Syndrome of Acute Pulmonary Insufficiency at High Altitude”.




 Post-operatory decerebration and death due to pharmacological products applied in anaesthesia


Curare and derived products, among others, once very much used in anaesthesia has been cause of post-operatory complications, decerebration and death



Sudden death following Adrenaline injection


  This sudden accident is produced because Adrenaline is not a bronco-dilator as believed, but a very strong bronco-constrictor

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